In recent decades, an argument for multiplicity has burgeoned in the study of human psychology. Instead of a focus on one kind of self, one kind of intelligence, and one kind of creativity, for example, researchers have described multiple selves, intelligences, and creativities. Moral psychology, too, has seen calls for the inclusion of more than one kind of morality. The Three Ethics differentiates between Autonomy, Community, and Divinity considerations in moral reasoning and emotions. Briefly, the Ethic of Autonomy involves a focus on the self as an individual. Moral considerations within this ethic include the interests, well-being, and rights of individuals (self or other), and fairness between individuals. The Ethic of Community focuses on persons as members of social groups, with attendant considerations such as duty to others, and concern with the customs, interests, and welfare of groups. The Ethic of Divinity focuses on people as spiritual or religious entities, and considerations encompass divine and natural law, sacred lessons, and spiritual purity. Research has shown the presence of these three ethics among highly varied age and cultural groups.
Coding Manual: Three Ethics of Autonomy, Community & Divinity
Dr. Jensen has developed the standard manual for coding moral reasoning in oral and written discourse in terms of the Three Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity. Across the studies that have used the manual, Cohen’s Kappa inter-rater reliability assessments have ranged from about .75 to .95.
EVA: Ethical Values Assessment (Long and Short Forms)
This questionnaire by Drs. Jensen and Padilla-Walker assesses ethical values pertaining to the Three Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity with either 18 or 12 items. In surveys, α values for each of the three ethics have ranged from about .80 to .95. Please see the English version, for description of the items that comprise the long and short forms, as well as information about alternative prompts.
TERA: Three Ethics Reasoning Assessment
This questionnaire assesses reasoning in regards to a selection of specific moral issues, namely, abortion, divorce, suicide, and suicide in the case of terminal illness. Reasoning for other issues, however, could be assessed using the same format.
Coding Manual: Motives for Civic Engagement
Dr. Jensen has developed a manual for coding motives or reasons for civic engagement at the political and community levels. This manual codes reasoning in terms of the Three Ethics of Autonomy, Community, and Divinity (see above), and more specific Civic Engagement Motives. Please contact Dr. Jensen for additional information.